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    Auteure : Rima Elkouri
    Référence : La Presse, 17 décembre 2007, p. A5

    Titre original : Du voile et du viol

    Mets un voile, sinon tu pourrais être violée. C'est ce que l'on recevait comme message jusqu'à tout récemment sur le site internet du Centre communautaire musulman de Montréal, sous une rubrique visant à informer l'internaute non voilée des supposés dangers liés à sa condition.

    Ne pas porter le hijab peut entraîner "des cas de divorce, d'adultère, de viol et d'enfants illégitimes", disait l'avertissement pour le moins ahurissant. On y disait aussi que celle qui enlève son voile voit sa "foi détruite", adopte un "comportement indécent" et sera punie en "enfer". On y traitait aussi la femme occidentale de "prostituée non payée".

    La liberté religieuse est une chose. La propagation de propos offensants et sexistes sous couvert de religion en est une autre. Il est tout à fait scandaleux qu'ici même à Montréal, en 2007, on intimide des femmes et des filles avec des idées aussi abjectes que fausses, drapées dans la vertu. Inacceptable qu'on leur fasse croire que ce crime qu'est le viol ait quoi que ce soit à voir avec leur tenue vestimentaire. Car sous couvert de prescription religieuse, on banalise ici un crime grave, on laisse entendre de façon éhontée que la femme violée est responsable de son sort et qu'elle aurait pu éviter tout ça en s'habillant convenablement. Des animateurs de radio ont déjà perdu leur job pour avoir débité pareilles âneries.

    Mais n'est-ce pas ce que le Coran prescrit? diront certains. Non. Même si l'interprétation fondamentaliste contemporaine veut faire du voile un pilier de l'islam, il faut souligner que la coutume du voile est antécédente à l'islam et n'a rien à voir avec la religion. "Dans la sphère arabe, pendant l'ère antéislamique, les hommes avaient très peu de respect pour la femme. Il s'agissait d'épargner aux femmes une situation de harcèlement sexuel", rappelle le politologue Sami Aoun dans son livre Aujourd'hui l'islam (Médiaspaul, 2007).

    Pourquoi un tel avertissement figurait-il sur le site du Centre communautaire musulman de Montréal (CCMM), celui-là même qui avait fait les manchettes lorsque son équipe féminine de taekwondo avait préféré quitter un tournoi plutôt que d'enlever le voile, celui-là même qui plaidait que les filles portaient le voile par choix? May Haydar, membre du CCMM, me dit qu'elle ne sait pas d'où viennent ces mises en garde. Elle me dit que, de toute façon, elles ont été retirées du site et qu'elle ne tient pas à les défendre. "Ça n'a pas été publié au nom du centre", dit-elle. "Ce n'est pas par la peur que l'on convainc des filles de porter le voile", ajoute-t-elle.

    D'après elle, les filles ne subiraient aucune pression. Mais pourquoi alors avoir endossé ce genre de menaces en les mettant sur le site internet du CCMM, qui n'a rien d'un forum ou d'un blogue où n'importe qui pourrait écrire n'importe quoi?

    On a beaucoup parlé, à la commission Bouchard-Taylor, de toutes ces femmes musulmanes qui choisissent librement de porter le hijab pour toutes sortes de raisons qui les regardent. Mais on n'a évidemment pas entendu toutes celles qui aimeraient faire le choix contraire et qui, étouffées par des ultrareligieux leur prodiguant ce genre de conseils menaçants, n'y arrivent pas. Ces filles-là existent, même si elles sont silencieuses, même si elles sont minoritaires parmi les musulmanes d'ici. Elles existent et nous devons nous assurer qu'elles aient les mêmes droits que n'importe quelle autre jeune Québécoise.

    Elles doivent savoir qu'elles ont, autant que les autres, droit à l'égalité. Elles doivent savoir qu'elles ont le droit de disposer de leur corps comme bon leur semble, quoi qu'en disent leurs parents, leurs oncles ou l'imam. Et que tout cela ne fait pas d'elles des "prostituées non payées".

    Est-ce à dire qu'il faut de toute urgence voter une loi anti-hijab, comme le réclament plusieurs au lendemain de l'horrible meurtre d'Aqsa Parvez? L'adolescente ontarienne aurait été tuée par son père, qui, semble-t-il, voulait l'obliger à porter le voile. Des lecteurs m'écrivent pour me dire que l'on pourrait prévenir ce genre de tragédies si une loi interdisait le voile et tout autre signe religieux dans l'espace public. Mais que peut vraiment une loi anti-hijab contre la folie meurtrière, qui n'est certainement pas l'apanage d'une seule communauté? Dans nos pages, vendredi, on pouvait lire la triste histoire d'un homme qui a tué sa conjointe à coups de marteau. Interdire les marteaux n'y aurait malheureusement rien changé.

    Pas de loi anti-hijab, donc. Mais un devoir, à la mémoire de cette jeune femme assassinée: celui de ne pas se taire devant tout discours fondamentaliste qui, sous couvert de pureté et de piété, piétine la liberté et la dignité des femmes.

    .


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    Author: Stewart Bell
    Sources: Twitter account and National Post, April 22, 2013 (Internet version)

    National Post (April 22, 2013) Two charged over al-Qaeda-supported terror plot to attack VIA passenger train: RCMP

    (Excerpt) Two suspects are in custody, one from Ontario and one from Quebec, following an RCMP counter-terrorism investigation in Ontario. RCMP say the men were plotting to attack a Via Rail passenger train in the Greater Toronto Area.

    The 2:30 p.m. background briefing, attended by several prominent Muslim community leaders, followed by a news conference near Toronto’s Pearson airport. In recent years, police have made a point of briefing community leaders before announcing terror arrests.

    esseghaier bell twitter

    Stewart Bell‏@StewartBellNP
    Toronto community leaders called to RCMP briefing on apparent terrorism arrests http:/natpo.st/10uclAjvia @nationalpost
    10:30 AM - 22 Apr 13

    Stewart Bell‏@StewartBellNP
    Muslim community leaders and imams gathering at Toronto RCMP airport detachment for briefing on terror plot arrests
    11:27 AM - 22 Apr 13

    .

     



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    AVERTISSEMENT

    Point de Bascule n’endosse pas le contenu de ce document. Il est archivé sur ce site uniquement à des fins de référence.

    WARNING

    Point de Bascule does not endorse the content of this document. It is archived on this website strictly for reference purposes.

    Chiheb Esseghaier – LinkedIn Profile

    Original address: http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/chiheb-esseghaier/46/604/314

    Date: April 23, 2013

    Chiheb Esseghaier
    phD student at INRS
    Location
    Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Montreal, Canada Area)
    Industry
    Research

    Chiheb Esseghaier's Overview
    Current
    phD student at INRS
    Past
    Graduate researcher at Université de Sherbrooke
    Researcher at IPEST, Tunis
    Education
    INSAT de Tunis
    INSAT de Tunis

    Chiheb Esseghaier's Summary

    Publications :

    - G. Suaifan, C. Esseghaier, A. Ng, M. Zourob, Wash-less and highly sensitive assay for prostate specific antigen detection, Analyst 2012, 137, 5614-5619.
    - C. Esseghaier, A. Ng, M. Zourob, A novel sensitive layer for rapid HIV-1 protease detection using magnetic bead mediation, Biosens. & Bioelectron. 2013, 41, 335–341
    - C. Esseghaier, S. Helali, H. Ben Fredj, A. Telili, A. Abdelghani, Polypyrrole–neutravidin layer for impedimetric biosensor, Sens. Actuators. B, 2008, 131, 584-589.
    - M. G. Silva, S. Helali, C. Esseghaier, C. Suarez, A. Oliva, A. Abdelghani, An impedance spectroscopy method for the detection and evaluation of Babesia bovis antibodies in cattle, Sens. Actuators B, 2008, 135, 206-213.
    - C. Esseghaier, Y. Bergaoui, H. ben Fredj, A. Tlili, S. Helali, S. Ameur, A. Abdelghani, Impedance spectroscopy on immobilized streptavidin horseradish peroxidase layer for biosensing, Sens. Actuators B, 2008, 134, 112-116.
    - H. Ben Fredj, S. Helali, C. Esseghaier, L. Vonna, L. Vidal, A. Abdelghani, Labeled magnetic nanoparticles assembly on polypyrrole film for biosensor applications, Talanta 2008, 75, 740-747.

    Conferences :

    - 14th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference, Hamilton 2009.
    - 22th World Congress on Biosensors, Cancun 2012.
    - Photonics North Conference, Montreal 2012.
    - TechConnect World Conference, Santa Clara 2012

    Chiheb Esseghaier's Experience

    phD student

    INRS

    Educational Institution; 201-500 employees; Research industry
    November 2010 – Present (2 years 6 months) Quebec, Canada
    Surface functionnalization and charcaterizations.
    Monitoring bio-chemical interactions through application of optical and electrochemical transducers.
    Development of lab-on-a-chip device for biosensing purposes.

    Graduate researcher

    Université de Sherbrooke
    Educational Institution; 5001-10,000 employees; Higher Education industry
    August 2008– September 2009 (1 year 2 months)Quebec, Canada
    Detection of influenza A virus using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique.
    Bio-chemical modification of Gallium arsenide substrates for bio-sensing purposes.

    Researcher

    IPEST, Tunis
    June 2007– July 2008 (1 year 2 months) Tunsia
    Electrochemical biosensing of peroxide (food processing industry), atrazine (environment monitoring) and Babesia Bovis virus (cattle breeding) using impedance spectroscopy technique.

    Chiheb Esseghaier's Languages

    Arabic
    Frensh
    English

    Chiheb Esseghaier's Skills & Expertise

    Microscopy
    Nanotechnology
    AFM
    Spectroscopy
    Characterization
    Physics
    Nanoparticles
    Powder X-ray Diffraction
    Biochemistry
    Microfabrication
    XPS
    Systems Biology
    Molecular Biology
    Materials Science
    Nanofabrication

    Chiheb Esseghaier's Education

    INSAT de Tunis
    Master's degree, Industrial Biotechnology

    2006 – 2008

    INSAT de Tunis
    Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.), Industrial Biology

    2001 – 2007

    Chiheb Esseghaier's Additional Information

    Groups and Associations:

    NANOMATERIALS, NANOSCIENCES, NANOTECHNOLOGIES, NANOFORMULATIONS & CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES

    esseghaier linkedin full


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    Informations essentielles / Basic information

    Registraire des entreprises du Québec : Dossier 1164552680

    Articles / Point de Bascule

    Références / References

    – Noorgle (12 septembre 2009) : Ahmed Kandil participe à une activité de financement de la mosquée Taiba

    – Andy Blatchford (La Presse Canadienne / La Presse – 23 avril 2013) : Une mosquée de Côte-des-Neiges attire l'attention


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    The interview was broadcast in French during Radio-Canada’s Téléjournal on April 26, 2013.

    English translation by Point de Bascule

    Excerpts:

    00:00 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada: In Tunisia, the parents of Chiheb Esseghaier accused of a terrorist plot in Canada are refuting the charges against their son.

    […]

    00:14 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada: However, the father admits that his son became radicalized after his arrival in Canada. Our special collaborator Éric de la Varenne met them.

    […]

    01:47 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: The father concedes that, in the last few years, his son has changed.

    01:52 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Father of Chiheb Esseghaier: His involvement in religion comes more from Canada than from Tunisia. That is without a doubt. No doubt.

    02:01 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Father of Chiheb Esseghaier: Because I went in some of these mosques over there and I heard what the… what some imams are saying. I did not like it at all.

    Archives Yahoo : http://fr-ca.actualites.yahoo.com/les-parents-chiheb-esseghaier-%C3%A0-la-d%C3%A9fense-leur-215407478.html

    Archives MRC TV : http://www.mrctv.org/videos/muslim-accused-terror-canada-radicalized-montreal-mosque

    00:00 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada : En Tunisie, les parents de Chiheb Esseghaier accusé de complot terroriste au Canada réfutent les accusations qui pèsent contre leur fils.

    00:00 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada: In Tunisia, the parents of Chiheb Esseghaier accused of a terrorist plot in Canada are refuting the charges against their son.

    00:08 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada : En fait, ils ne croient pas qu'il ait pu planifier de faire exploser un train de VIA Rail près de Toronto avec l'aide d'Al-Qaïda.

    00:08 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada: In fact, they do not believe that he could have planned the explosion of a VIA Rail train near Toronto with the help of Al Qaeda.

    00:14 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada : Mais le père reconnait toutefois que son fils s'est radicalisé après son arrivée au Canada. Notre collaborateur spécial Éric de la Varenne les a rencontrés.

    00:14 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada: However, the father admits that his son became radicalized after his arrival in Canada. Our special collaborator Éric de la Varenne met them.

    00:23 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Nous sommes à Ghazala, dans la banlieue de Tunis, à 15 minutes en voiture du centre-ville.

    00:23 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: We are in Ghazala, in the suburbs of Tunis, 15 minutes from downtown by car.

    00:29 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : C'est ici dans cette maison que Chiheb Esseghaier a passé son enfance avec ses trois frères et ses parents.

    00:29 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: It is here in this house that Chiheb Esseghaier spent his childhood with his three brothers and his parents.

    00:36 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Sa mère, Raoudha, refuse de croire à la culpabilité de son fils.

    00:36 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: His mother Raoudha, refuses to believe in her son’s guilt.

    00:47 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : "J'ai été surprise, dit-elle, mais je n'y ai pas cru car je suis certaine que mon fils ne peut pas commettre un tel acte.

    00:47 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: "I was surprised, she said, but I did not believe it because I am sure that my son cannot do such a thing.

    00:55 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Je le sais parce que je l'ai élevé, je le connais par coeur.

    00:55 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: I know it because I raised him. I know him by heart.

    00:58 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Il mène des expériences, il fait de la recherche. C'est un très bon garçon, il adore les études. Chiheb, c'est un génie”, ajoute-t-elle.

    00:58 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: He is carrying out experiments, he is doing research. This is a very good boy. He loves to study. Chiheb, he’s a genius”, she added.

    01:06 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Depuis l'enfance, croyez-moi, il aime les études. À quatre ans, il savait déjà lire et compter.

    01:06 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: Since his childhood, he loves to study, believe me. At the age of four, he could already read and count.

    01:12 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Depuis son enfance, il étudie. Et même quand on lui disait allez, viens jouer, il répondait non, je n'ai pas envie, je préfère étudier."

    01:12 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: Since his childhood, he studies. Even when we were inviting him to play, he was answering no, I do not feel like it, I prefer studying.

    01:25 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Même incrédulité du côté du père. Pour Rached, l’arrestation de Chiheb est une erreur.

    01:25 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: Same unbelief on the father’s side. For Rached, the arrest of Chiheb was a mistake.

    01:31 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Père de Chiheb Esseghaier : Quelqu'un qui veut faire détourner un train, ou faire... il doit y avoir un matériel, quelque chose!

    01:31 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Father of Chiheb Esseghaier: Somebody who wants to derail a train or do… he must have materials, something!

    01:39 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Père de Chiheb Esseghaier : Ou bien un plan où il y a des noms spécifiés, un plan détaillé là... Ils n'ont rien trouvé de tout ça!

    01:39 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Father of Chiheb Esseghaier: Or a plan where names are specified, a detailed plan… They have not found any of that!

    01:47 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Le père concède que ces dernières années, son fils a changé.

    01:47 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: The father concedes that, in the last few years, his son has changed.

    01:52 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Père de Chiheb Esseghaier : Son engagement religieux, il vient plus du Canada que de Tunisie! Ça, aucun doute pour moi. Aucun doute.

    01:52 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Father of Chiheb Esseghaier: His involvement in religion comes more from Canada than from Tunisia. That is without a doubt. No doubt.

    02:01 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Père de Chiheb Esseghaier : Parce que je suis allé dans quelques mosquées là-bas, et j'ai entendu ce que les... ce que quelques imams disent. Ça m'a pas plu du tout.

    02:01 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Father of Chiheb Esseghaier: Because I went in some of these mosques over there and I heard what the… what some imams are saying. I did not like it at all.

    02:14 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Dans la famille Esseghaier, on réfute la participation du fils à un complot terroriste, mais on concède à demi-mots que son engagement religieux s'est fait plus fort ces dernières années.

    02:14 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: In the Esseghaier family, they deny that the son could have been part to a terrorist plot but they concede half-heartedly that his religious involvement became stronger in recent years

    02:26 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: An involvement that does not come from Tunisia, according to them.

    02:26 Éric de la Varenne / Radio-Canada Special Collaborator: An involvement that does not come from Tunisia, according to them.

     


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    English translation of the interview by Point de Bascule HERE

    L’interview a été diffusée lors du téléjournal de Radio-Canada le 26 avril 2013.

    Extraits :

    00:00 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada : En Tunisie, les parents de Chiheb Esseghaier accusé de complot terroriste au Canada réfutent les accusations qui pèsent contre leur fils.

    (…)

    00:14 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada : Mais le père reconnait toutefois que son fils s'est radicalisé après son arrivée au Canada. Notre collaborateur spécial Éric de la Varenne les a rencontrés.

    (…)

    01:47 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Le père concède que ces dernières années, son fils a changé.

    01:52 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Père de Chiheb Esseghaier : Son engagement religieux, il vient plus du Canada que de Tunisie! Ça, aucun doute pour moi. Aucun doute. Parce que je suis allé dans quelques mosquées là-bas, et j'ai entendu ce que les... ce que quelques imams disent. Ça m'a pas plu du tout.

    Archives Yahoo : http://fr-ca.actualites.yahoo.com/les-parents-chiheb-esseghaier-%C3%A0-la-d%C3%A9fense-leur-215407478.html

    Archives MRC TV : http://www.mrctv.org/videos/muslim-accused-terror-canada-radicalized-montreal-mosque

    00:00 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada : En Tunisie, les parents de Chiheb Esseghaier accusé de complot terroriste au Canada réfutent les accusations qui pèsent contre leur fils.

    00:08 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada : En fait, ils ne croient pas qu'il ait pu planifier de faire exploser un train de VIA Rail près de Toronto avec l'aide d'Al-Qaïda.

    00:14 Pascale Nadeau / Radio-Canada : Mais le père reconnait toutefois que son fils s'est radicalisé après son arrivée au Canada. Notre collaborateur spécial Éric de la Varenne les a rencontrés.

    00:23 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Nous sommes à Ghazala, dans la banlieue de Tunis, à 15 minutes en voiture du centre-ville.

    00:29 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : C'est ici dans cette maison que Chiheb Esseghaier a passé son enfance avec ses trois frères et ses parents.

    00:36 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Sa mère, Raoudha, refuse de croire à la culpabilité de son fils.

    00:47 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : "J'ai été surprise, dit-elle, mais je n'y ai pas cru car je suis certaine que mon fils ne peut pas commettre un tel acte.

    00:55 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Je le sais parce que je l'ai élevé, je le connais par coeur.

    00:58 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Il mène des expériences, il fait de la recherche. C'est un très bon garçon, il adore les études. Chiheb, c'est un génie”, ajoute-t-elle.

    01:06 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Depuis l'enfance, croyez-moi, il aime les études. À quatre ans, il savait déjà lire et compter.

    01:12 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Depuis son enfance, il étudie. Et même quand on lui disait allez, viens jouer, il répondait non, je n'ai pas envie, je préfère étudier."

    01:25 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Même incrédulité du côté du père. Pour Rached, l’arrestation de Chiheb est une erreur.

    01:31 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Père de Chiheb Esseghaier : Quelqu'un qui veut faire détourner un train, ou faire... il doit y avoir un matériel, quelque chose!

    01:39 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Père de Chiheb Esseghaier : Ou bien un plan où il y a des noms spécifiés, un plan détaillé là... Ils n'ont rien trouvé de tout ça!

    01:47 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Le père concède que ces dernières années, son fils a changé.

    01:52 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Père de Chiheb Esseghaier : Son engagement religieux, il vient plus du Canada que de Tunisie! Ça, aucun doute pour moi. Aucun doute.

    02:01 Mohammed Rached Esseghaier / Père de Chiheb Esseghaier : Parce que je suis allé dans quelques mosquées là-bas, et j'ai entendu ce que les... ce que quelques imams disent. Ça m'a pas plu du tout.

    02:14 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Dans la famille Esseghaier, on réfute la participation du fils à un complot terroriste, mais on concède à demi-mots que son engagement religieux s'est fait plus fort ces dernières années.

    02:26 Éric de la Varenne / Collaborateur spécial de Radio-Canada : Un engagement qui ne vient selon eux pas de Tunisie.


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    AVERTISSEMENT

    Point de Bascule n’endosse pas le contenu de ce document. Il est archivé sur ce site uniquement à des fins de référence.

    WARNING

    Point de Bascule does not endorse the content of this document. It is archived on this website strictly for reference purposes.

    Chiheb Esseghaier fréquentait la mosquée de l’Association culturelle islamique de l’Estrie

    Adresse originale : http://www.lejournaldesherbrooke.ca/2013/04/23/la-communaute-musulmane-de-sherbrooke-secouee

    Auteure : Éliane Thibault
    Référence : Journal de Sherbrooke, 23 avril 2013

    Titre original : La communauté musulmane de Sherbrooke secouée

    SHERBROOKE - Incompréhension, tristesse, inquiétude : les mots peuvent difficilement qualifier les sentiments ressentis par les membres de la communauté musulmane de Sherbrooke. L’un des leurs, Chiheb Esseghaier d’origine tunisienne, est suspecté de complot terroriste.

    La nouvelle attriste Safia Houari. L’homme a fui son Algérie natale à cause de la guerre. Arrivé en Estrie il y a à peine quelques mois, il a enfin l’impression de vivre sa religion comme il se l’est toujours représentée.

    «L’Islam est une religion de paix. C’est depuis que je suis ici que je peux vraiment la vivre ainsi», raconte-t-il.

    L’idée que des hommes aient pu envisager de poser une bombe dans un train de passager le peine visiblement. «Pourquoi… Pourquoi tuer des gens? Au nom de qui?», laisse-t-il tomber.

    Abdellah Chaker est arrivé au Québec il y a 10 ans. Pour cet épicier et président de l’Association culturelle islamique de l’Estrie, ces gestes sont choquants et condamnables.

    «Il ne faut pas associer des actes individuels à toute une communauté, surtout la communauté musulmane», commente-t-il.

    De par ses fonctions, Abdellah Chaker a croisé à quelques occasions Chiheb Esseghaier, surtout à la Mosquée. À l’époque, le suspect était étudiant à l’Université de Sherbrooke en Biochimie et habitait un petit appartement de la rue Galt Ouest.

    «On ne s’ingère pas dans les affaires des gens concernant leurs intentions ou leurs comportements», raconte-t-il.

    Ce dernier précise cependant qu’à Sherbrooke, la communauté musulmane est particulièrement bien intégrée. Cette dernière désire partager sa culture et ses coutumes avec les Québécois d’origine. Même la Mosquée est ouverte à ceux qui veulent en apprendre davantage sur cette religion.

    «Je sais que les Québécois connaissent peu de chose de notre culture, de notre gastronomie. C’est pour cela qu’on essaie toujours d’être accueillant avec eux», raconte M. Chaker.


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    Tariq Ramadan invité par l’Association culturelle islamique de l'Estrie et l'Association des musulmans de l'Université de Sherbrooke

     Référence : La Tribune (Sherbrooke), 16 octobre 1999, p. B12

    Titre original : Actualité en bref – Conférence à saveur musulmane

    Tariq Ramadan sera le conférencier invité de l'Association culturelle islamique de l'Estrie, en collaboration avec l'Association des musulmans de l'Université de Sherbrooke le lundi 18 octobre à 18h30, à l'amphithéâtre Albert Leblanc (A2-101) de l'Université de Sherbrooke. Professeur de philosophie et d'islamologie à l'Université de Fribourg, en Suisse, impliqué depuis plusieurs années dans le débat concernant l'islam en Europe, M. Ramadan va orienter sa conférence sur la question «Être musulman aujourd'hui». Il est d'ailleurs l'auteur de plusieurs publication à ce sujet.


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    L’ACIE organise une activité de dawa (prosélytisme) auprès des élèves de Sherbrooke. Le jihad déclaré pilier de l’islam.

    Auteur : Gilles Fisette
    Référence : La Tribune, 21 septembre 2001, p. A8

    Extrait :

    Le jeûne est l'un des cinq piliers de cette religion avec la profession de foi et la prière, le pèlerinage à la Mecque (pour les gens en santé et suffisamment riche pour pouvoir le faire), le zakat ou l'aumône de 2,5 pour cent de ses économies et le djihad.

    Non, le djihad n'est pas la guerre sainte, comme on le rapporte toujours, a dit M. Lekhel. Le djihad, c'est un mot pour dire effort, lutte, la lutte contre les forces du mal, contre la tyrannie, contre l'oppression.

    Note de Point de Bascule : Le jihad ne fait pas partie des cinq piliers de l’islam.

    Titre original : Lendemains d'attentats – Bain d'islam pour des élèves du Phare

    Hier après-midi, la mosquée était pleine à craquer de jeunes garçons et de jeunes filles du secondaire.

    Beaucoup de mains se sont levées quand Hamiel Lekhel s'est tu après avoir résumé brièvement les grandes lignes de l'islam.

    Non, a-t-il répondu à une question en ce sens, les musulmanes ne sont pas obligées d'être accompagnées d'un frère, d'un cousin, d'un mari pour sortir. Elles peuvent aller où bon leur semble. À l'exception des lieux où leur religion peut être en danger, comme les hommes d'ailleurs, soit les lieux où on sert de l'alcool. Il y a des pays où les femmes musulmanes ont moins de droit que les hommes mais ce sont des règles culturelles et non pas coraniques, a précisé M. Lekhel.

    "Moi, j'ai ma propre voiture et je voudrais bien voir quelqu'un essayer de me l'enlever", a lancé en bravade une jeune femme musulmane qui assistait à cette séance d'information depuis la porte du local.

    L'atmosphère s'est détendue.

    Hier, un groupe d'élèves du 2e cycle du secondaire de l'école du Phare, de Sherbrooke, se sensibilisait aux réalités de l'islam. Ils accompagnaient leurs professeurs qui avaient établi le contact avec l'Association culturelle islamique de l'Estrie dont M. Lekhel est le président.

    Bien sûr, la rencontre a été planifiée à la suite des attentats terroristes de mardi dernier afin de faire connaître une réalité qu'occultent tous les préjugés entourant cette religion qu'embrassent plus d'un milliard d'être humains sur la planète.

    Dans une mosquée comme celle qui a été aménagée à l'étage de l'édifice que possède l'association, rue Kitchener, dans le quartier ouest, il n'y a pas de prêtre. Le président ou tout autre membre peut s'installer à l'avant, à l'heure des prières, et donner le signal de départ. Tous les autres se mettront en rang derrière lui. Ils s'inclineront, tournés vers le mur situé à l'est (vers la Mecque).

    Ils prieront, en terminant chaque séquence par le mot amin qui veut dire amen en arabe.

    Amour et pardon

    Le Dieu de l'islam se nomme Allah. Il est le même Dieu que le Dieu des juifs ou le Dieu des chrétiens. C'est un Dieu omniscient, infiniment bon, infiniment aimable, infiniment juste, et le péché lui déplaît toujours autant. Ce Dieu prêche l'amour et le pardon. C'est le Dieu éternel. Le Dieu créateur. Il n'est pas le Dieu des terroristes. Dans le Coran, on lui donne plus de 900 noms différents, un nom pour chacune de ses qualités.

    La religion islamique ou musulmane si on préfère découle du Coran qui est le livre dicté par Dieu à son prophète Mohammed (Mahomet ou Muhammad, si on préfère), par l'intermédiaire de l'ange Gabriel.

    "Dieu est passé par Moïse pour rejoindre les juifs; il est passé par Jésus pour rejoindre les chrétiens et il est passé par Mohammed pour les musulmans", explique M. Lekhel.

    Un musulman qui pratique sa religion - il y a des musulmans qui ne sont guère pratiquants... comme bien des catholiques, par exemple -, priera cinq fois par jour. Une première fois à l'aube; la seconde, quand le soleil est au zénith; une troisième fois vers 17h00; une quatrième fois au coucher du soleil; et une dernière fois avant la nuit.

    Un musulman peut prier n'importe où, du moment qu'il peut se tourner vers la Mecque.

    Le Coran lui proscrira la nourriture de porc et l'alcool. Il lui demande de jeûner durant le 9e mois de l'année musulmane, entre le lever du soleil et son coucher, une règle qui ne concerne que les personnes adultes et en bonne santé et qui exclut les femmes menstruées et les femmes qui allaitent.

    Le jeûne est l'un des cinq piliers de cette religion avec la profession de foi et la prière, le pèlerinage à la Mecque (pour les gens en santé et suffisamment riche pour pouvoir le faire), le zakat ou l'aumône de 2,5 pour cent de ses économies et le djihad.

    Non, le djihad n'est pas la guerre sainte, comme on le rapporte toujours, a dit M. Lekhel. Le djihad, c'est un mot pour dire effort, lutte, la lutte contre les forces du mal, contre la tyrannie, contre l'oppression.

    Dans la région de Sherbrooke, on estime qu'il y a environ 1500 personnes qui pratiquent l'islamisme. Ces personnes sont originaires de divers pays d'Europe, d'Asie ou d'Afrique.

    D'autres sont des "Québécois de souche" qui ont trouvé dans le Coran ce qu'ils ne voyaient pas dans la Bible.

    "Nous organisons souvent des rencontres dans les écoles afin de faire connaître l'islam. Nous voulions organiser des portes ouvertes, ici, au local de l'association et à la mosquée. Nous y songions depuis des années mais le temps passe trop vite... Les attentats en sol américain, la semaine dernière, ont été un déclencheur...", a rapporté M. Lekhel.

    Illustration : Une centaine de jeunes filles et de jeunes garçons de l'école du Phare ont envahi la mosquée sherbrookoise, hier, où ils ont découvert l'islam à travers les propos de Hamiel Lekhel (à droite). À gauche, Pierre-Luc Royer, Arijana Lukic et Amélie Lamarche, de secondaire V.

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    Lettre signée par des individus et des organisations liés aux Frères Musulmans qui demandent le retrait de la motion anti-charia adoptée unanimement par l’Assemblée nationale du Québec

    English version HERE

    Référence : Le Devoir, 15 septembre 2005, p. A6

    Extrait :

    Au nom de quel principe peut-on accepter qu'une voix s'exprime à l'Assemblée nationale pour jeter le doute sur une communauté en prétendant qu'il existe en son sein des groupes radicaux sans pour autant indiquer clairement de qui elle parle? En effet, qui est visé par ces accusations anonymes, aussi gratuites que dangereuses?

    Titre original : Une motion à retirer

    Signataires :

    Forum Musulman Canadien
    Présence Musulmane Montréal
    Astrolabe
    Association de femmes musulmanes AVIS
    Fondation Internationale Azzahra
    Association culturelle islamique de l'Estrie
    Centre Islamique Badr
    Fred A. Reed, auteur et journaliste
    Association Internationale pour la Fraternité Amazigh
    Roksana Bahramitash, auteure et chercheuse
    United Muslim Students Association
    Amir M. Maasoum, chercheur et président du Centre des ressources sur la non-violence
    Muslim Association of Canada
    Islamic Center of Quebec
    Centre culturel musulman de Montreal
    Association Rissala
    Mosquée Abu-Bakr
    Mosquée Eshoura
    Mensuel al-Hijra
    Regroupement des Algériens du Canada
    Mosquée de Montréal
    Farouk Baroudi, membre du Comité consultatif d'experts auprès du Comité sur les affaires religieuses du ministère de l'Éducation du Québec
    The Message of Islam Foundation
    Regroupement des Marocains du Canada
    Canadian Council on Islamic Relations-Canada (CAIR-CAN)
    Association des services sociaux islamiques-Canada (ISSA)

    Nous sommes tous des Québécois. De diverses origines ethniques ou religieuses, mais tous de coeur et d'adoption, et contre l'injustice et la discrimination. C'est notre attachement à ce pays et à ses valeurs citoyennes qui explique notre dépit face à la motion du 26 mai adoptée par l'Assemblée nationale au sujet des «tribunaux islamiques». Au nom de la Charte québécoise des droits et libertés de la personne, nous condamnons cette motion qui stigmatise les citoyens de confession musulmane et exprime une discrimination à l'encontre de leur religion. Et nous demandons son retrait.

    Alors que, en 1832, sous l'impulsion des Patriotes et de Louis-Joseph Papineau, notre assemblée avait défié les préjugés ayant cours dans l'empire britannique en se dotant d'une loi de pleine émancipation politique des juifs plus de 25 ans avant Londres, cette formidable tradition de promotion des droits et libertés se trouve malheureusement brisée aujourd'hui.

    Au nom de quel principe peut-on accepter qu'une voix s'exprime à l'Assemblée nationale pour jeter le doute sur une communauté en prétendant qu'il existe en son sein des groupes radicaux sans pour autant indiquer clairement de qui elle parle? En effet, qui est visé par ces accusations anonymes, aussi gratuites que dangereuses?

    Il ne s'agit pas ici de débattre la question des «tribunaux islamiques» ou celle de l'arbitrage religieux. Si un tel débat devait avoir lieu un jour, les signataires de cette déclaration prendraient position selon leur lecture des intérêts de la société québécoise et des besoins de ses communautés ethniques et religieuses. Ce débat doit être honnête et juste. Il doit permettre aux positions des uns et des autres d'êtres (sic) exprimées sans diabolisation aucune.

    C'est pourquoi nous rappelons également aux médias et aux journalistes leur responsabilité civique. Nous pensons que les médias et les journalistes ne peuvent pas, sans trahir leur mission, continuer à prêter l'oreille exclusivement aux personnes disposées à ne dire que ce que leurs hôtes souhaitent entendre.

    Alors que nous savons que l'arbitrage religieux n'est pas permis par les lois du Québec, est-il manifeste que la motion ne constitue pas l'expression la plus «accueillante» pour les concitoyens musulmans qui, au mieux de leurs moyens, tentent d'intégrer positivement la société québécoise tout en restant fidèles à leur foi?

    Nous interpellons donc la société civile et politique au Québec pour qu'elle condamne une motion qui exprime une discrimination religieuse en rupture avec les principes de la Charte des droits et libertés et les valeurs de justice et de dignité. Qu'ils soient athées, agnostiques, chrétiens, juifs, bouddhistes ou musulmans, nous invitons nos concitoyens à prendre position et à demander le retrait de cette motion.

    Au delà des discours des marchands de peur et de méfiance, il est temps de revenir aux valeurs universelles d'ouverture, de justice et d'égalité qui caractérisent le Québec.


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    Jean-François Therrien (ACIE) et Mohamed Aziz Chraibi (MAC) animent une activité de dawa (prosélytisme) destinée aux non-musulmans de Sherbrooke

    Auteure : Marie-Christine Bouchard
    Référence : La Tribune, 17 mai 2010, p. 6

    Titre original : Du monde à la... mosquée

    Sherbrooke - Découvrir l'Islam à coeur ouvert: c'était l'invitation que lançait ce week-end l'Association culturelle islamique de l'Estrie, qui ouvrait les portes de la mosquée Al-Rahman de Sherbrooke. L'objectif était que tous puissent découvrir les musulmans de Sherbrooke, au-delà des préjugés tenaces.

    "Le mot islam veut dire paix. Nous sommes des gens comme tout le monde, on travaille, on a des enfants, on n'aime pas la violence. Quand on entend parler des attentats commis au nom de l'islam, on n'aime pas ça, comme tout le monde. Ce n'est pas l'islam qui commande de faire des attentats, c'est une question bien plus politique", soutient Bouchelaghem Reda, bénévole musulman lors de cette journée portes ouvertes.

    Les visiteurs semblaient avides de découvrir cette religion qui suscite tellement de questions. En effet, si la journée devait s'amorcer à 10 h, des visiteurs ont frappé à la porte dès 9 h samedi matin!

    "Nous sommes bien contents de la réaction. Chaque année, beaucoup de gens viennent nous visiter, nous poser des questions, en apprendre plus sur l'islam", fait savoir M. Reda.

    Suzanne Turcotte fait partie de ceux-là. En effet, la Sherbrookoise de souche était venue en apprendre davantage sur cette religion, puisqu'une de ses amies s'est récemment convertie à la religion islamique.

    "Je veux comprendre parce que je respecte mon amie. Pour moi, le respect, c'est de comprendre le choix des autres", précise-t-elle.

    Nouveauté cette année, les musulmans avaient invité deux conférenciers à venir parler de l'islam, soit Mohamed Aziz Chraibi, docteur et imam de la mosquée AlRawdah, ainsi que Jean-François Therrien, étudiant au doctorat en études du religieux contemporain et intervenant en soins spirituels.

    Ce dernier, Sherbrookois de souche également, s'est converti à l'islam il y a quelques années.

    "Il y avait une présence dans mon coeur depuis que j'étais tout petit. Je la sentais, mais la religion catholique ne me convenait pas. En poursuivant les études jusqu'au doctorat que je suis en train de faire présentement, j'ai senti quelque chose. J'ai lu le Coran, j'ai essayé une prière et ç'a répondu à un besoin, j'ai ressenti un apaisement", explique-t-il pour résumer la démarche qui l'a mené à sa conversion.

    Dans le cadre de son doctorat, Jean-François Therrien étudie la religion dans un contexte d'immigration chez la première génération d'immigrants. "Lorsqu'une personne arrive à Sherbrooke, comment la pratique de sa religion et de sa spiritualité changent?"

    Les réactions sont évidemment fort nombreuses, comme il le soutient. Le voyage vers une nouvelle terre d'accueil est souvent l'occasion de questionnements.

    "Plusieurs musulmans le sont de tradition, comme beaucoup de catholiques le sont. En voyageant, ça leur permet une introspection: est-ce que moi, j'y crois?"

    Et si c'est le cas, la mosquée de Sherbrooke les accueillera à bras ouverts. "C'est l'un des lieux de Sherbrooke où les Marocains, les Tunisiens, bref, toutes les cultures peuvent se retrouver ensemble", soutient le doctorant.

    Illustration
    Imacom, Andréanne Lemire
    Abdelilah Hamdache et sa fille Souhaïla Hamdache ont accueilli les visiteurs à la journée portes ouvertes de la mosquée Al-Rahman de Sherbrooke, journée à laquelle a notamment participé Suzanne Turcotte.

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    qatar uoif ramadan carre
    Le Qatar peut compter sur l’UOIF, la section locale des Frères Musulmans, et Tariq Ramadan pour accroître son influence auprès des musulmans qui vivent en France.


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    avignon ptre battu carre
    Un religieux de la Communauté de Saint-Jean, le Père Grégoire, a été agressé lundi à Avignon après s'être fait voler son téléphone portable dans la cour du centre paroissial.


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    Tariq Ramadan pushes American Muslims “not to infiltrate”, just to become journalists and “to shape the perceptions”, states that “Jihad is the way we implement sharia”

    On March 18, 2013, Tariq Ramadan gave a lecture at the Islamic Association of Greater Detroit entitled American Muslim Identity: Challenges, Opportunities and Prospects.

    ANNOUNCEMENT 1: http://www.tariqramadan.com/spip.php?article12757&lang=fr
    ANNOUNCEMENT 2: http://www.mimuslimcouncil.com/events1/professor-tariq-ramadan-american-muslim-identity-challenges/

    VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJu-jYx5FS8&feature=youtu.be

    Both excerpts were transcribed by Point de Bascule.

    Excerpt 1 / Terminology – “Jihad is the way we implement sharia

    0:50:04 The first challenge that we have, that every one of you have here, has here, is terminology. In fact, if you want Islam to depart of the American narrative, we should be able to speak Islam in English, in the English language by knowing what we are talking about and to regain, reshape, redefine the words that we are using. Don’t let anyone make sharia a dirty word. Don’t let anyone speak about jihad as if it’s a holy war. Don’t let anyone speak about the way we, as Muslims, we speak about the values that are ours, in a way which is done by Orientalists and not by ourselves. The first, now, to challenge some definitions when it comes to Islam is us, in the way we speak about our values There is no way to be a Muslim if we don’t understand a deep … if we don’t have a deep understanding of what sharia is and jihad is. Jihad is the way we implement sharia by saying… It has nothing to do with holy war. It’s something which has something to do with resistance and positive presence.

    [Quote in Arabic]

    0:51:24 We’ll resist the bad and we are here to promote the good. Not only for us, for all the people because the best amongst us is the best for humanity, as the prophet (saw) said. So, this is where it’s important, for us, to have this theoretical challenge is terminology. And I am sorry to tell you that many of you, you might rely on the imams on this but you have to do the job. You should have basic understanding of the Islamic terminology in English. This is the way to resist because language is power.

    Excerpt 2 / Tariq Ramadan pushes American Muslims “not to infiltrate”, just to become journalists and “to shape the perceptions”

    1:39:58 What is important in our number, our number as Muslims, is not that we are converting people. It’s by having an important number… the more committed Muslims we have, the more witnesses we have and the more we change mindset around us. If we understand. The second thing that we have to understand is that we live in a country where the mainstream media now are powerful but, at the same time, they are not trusted by many people. Listen to the Americans. Listen to the Europeans. They don’t trust them. They go now to internet, they go to alternative media. This is where we have to be present. This is where we have to promote texts, videos, lectures, articles… We have to do the job. We are not going to wait for a mainstream so-called “Islamic media” to appear, to… you know… Many people were very happy with Al-Jazeera… I, myself, from the very beginning was very cautious. Because I don’t want the other side of you know something which is… the tension. It’s to do the same on the other side. I want something which is a bit deeper. But what we have to do as Muslims is to use the alternative media and we have. And then, for example, now you can have hundreds, thousands, millions of people who can just watch some of the things that we are promoting.

    So, this is also something that we have to be skilled. Media, journalism is also something… You know, when I was once saying: we need more Muslims and more American Muslims being journalists... One of the journalist who heard that, he said: “Oh! Tariq Ramadan is pushing the Muslims to infiltrate.” I never said that. What I said is not to infiltrate, it’s just to be a journalist. Because the journalist, when you come with your background, of course you should be objective or try to be the most objective but you are coming with a background, and you come with another vision… We have to push our daughters and our sons not only to be medical doctors, not only to be computer scientists but journalists to deal with this, to deal with academia because within academia we have all this business: to shape the perceptions, to help the people…

    […]

    1:42:52 I wouldn’t care too much about, you know, the big media. They are changing. It’s going to… It is powerful but we have the power of our presence, we have the power of our principles and we have the power of alternative media. And we should send our children, when they want to do so to… in the field of journalism, to be able to be part of the whole thing and then things are changing.

    Last example that I want to give you and I keep on repeating this because we don’t realize this, is… You have trends here who are very much promoting Islamophobia and they are saying, for example: Europe is becoming Eurabia. But why are they saying this? They are saying this because they know something. And once again: don’t work only with emotions and perceptions. Come to facts, figures. Study. Know what is happening. The evolution of history. In less than… You have 16 years, 16 years. We have seen something which was very interesting in the perceptions of the people in one conflict, which is the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

    1:44:08 ‘67, ‘67, 73% of the… in ’67, 73% of the Europeans were supporting Israel in the conflict. In seventy…, in the seventies… Now, not in the seventies, now, in 2010, we have 66 to 67% of the Europeans supporting the Palestinians. In fact, it’s not coming from… and you know what happened?

    The European Union sent… they had a poll and a survey about what is the most dangerous country in the world? The majority of the Europeans responded: Israel and Romano Prodi (Italian Prime Minister and President of the European Commission), at the top, not representing the grassroots, at the top, he came and he said the… the… the question was wrongly put. It was not the right way to ask the question. But what I want you to understand is that without, with effort and without really being involved in this, with the presence, with being… or promoting news and information and more knowledgeable and being present within the society, you can change the perceptions if you are not narrow-minded, if you are not self-isolating yourself and if you understand that not everything it’s coming from the media. Not everything it’s coming from media. It’s coming from our active presence in the society.

    And this is going to make it inshallah but we have to be present and we have to speak out and to be able to speak out, it’s not only to speak from where we are but to know to whom we speak and how are we heard.

    Note: On November 5, 2003, the Sydney Morning Herald alluded to a peace-threat poll commented by Romano Prodi. He was, then, the President of the European Commission.

    ramadan tariq detroit annonce 2013


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    After the failure of communism, the world needs a third economic system based on the Islamic norms

    Original address: http://www.pakistanherald.com/Articles/Economic-challenge-for-the-Ummah-3008

    Web Archive: http://web.archive.org/web/20120709101936/http://www.pakistanherald.com/Articles/Economic-challenge-for-the-Ummah-3008

    Author: Taqi Usmani
    Source: Pakistan Herald, May 3, 2012

    EXCERPT

    The failure of communism was not due to its justified criticism of the evils of capitalism. Rather it was caused by the inherent defects of the alternative system suggested by it. The capitalist economies still suffer from inequities in the distribution of wealth. There is still a large gap between the haves and the have-nots and ‘poverty in the midst of plenty’ is still the major problem of their economy. These are the real problems created by capitalism and unless they are satisfactorily solved, it may give birth to another reaction that may be more aggressive than communism.

    The world, therefore, is badly in need of a Third Economic System. The Muslim Ummah can work out this system based on the Islamic norms. The economic principles taught by the Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (PBUH are quite capable of solving the major economic problems faced by the world today. While they allow private ownership and market economy, they also provide a well considered system of distributive justice, which may eliminate the inequities and bring about a system in which profit motive works with the collective interest of the society.

    Original title: Economic challenge for the Ummah

    It is common knowledge that Ummah’s basic economic problem is the dependence of the Muslim countries on others. Most of them are borrowing huge amounts from the rich Western countries. Some countries are incurring these heavy interest-bearing loans not only for the development projects, but also for their day-to-day expenses, and what is more serious, for the payment of interest accrued on their previous loans which keeps the size of their indebtedness ever-increasing through a vicious circle.

    Dependency on foreign loans is the basic disease of our economy that has not only shattered our economic life, but has also devastated our self-determination and has forced us to submit to the demands of our creditors, sometimes, at the price of our collective interests. It is no secret that the creditors impose their own conditions before they advance a loan. These conditions keep us under a constant foreign pressure, often stop us from pursuing our own objectives and force us to follow the policies dictated by others. The evil consequences of dependence on foreign loans are too obvious to need any further elaboration. Islamic teachings consider “Indebtedness” as a detestable phenomenon, which should not be resorted to except in cases of extreme necessity. The Holy Prophet (PBUH even refused to offer the funeral prayer for a person who died before paying back his loan.

    The twentieth century has witnessed the rise of communism, the conflict between capitalist and communist countries and lastly the fall of communism. The capitalist Western countries are celebrating the fall of communism as if it was an empirical evidence of their own victory, not only on a political front but also on ideological plane. The fact is, however, that communism was based on an emotional reaction against some evil consequences of the capitalist economy, specially, against the element of inequitable distribution of wealth, which has been experienced in the capitalist countries throughout the centuries. The failure of communism was not due to its justified criticism of the evils of capitalism. Rather it was caused by the inherent defects of the alternative system suggested by it. The capitalist economies still suffer from inequities in the distribution of wealth. There is still a large gap between the haves and the have-nots and ‘poverty in the midst of plenty’ is still the major problem of their economy. These are the real problems created by capitalism and unless they are satisfactorily solved, it may give birth to another reaction that may be more aggressive than communism.

    The world, therefore, is badly in need of a Third Economic System. The Muslim Ummah can work out this system based on the Islamic norms. The economic principles taught by the Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (PBUH are quite capable of solving the major economic problems faced by the world today. While they allow private ownership and market economy, they also provide a well considered system of distributive justice, which may eliminate the inequities and bring about a system in which profit motive works with the collective interest of the society. The basic fault of communism was that, frustrated with the inequity of capitalism, it assailed the very institutions of private ownership and market forces and developed a utopian idea of planned economy which was unnatural, artificial and oppressive. The denial of individual liberty curtailed the zeal for production and the wide powers of the state left the destiny of the people in the hands of the ruling class. Islam not only allows the market forces but also provides mechanism to keep them operative with their natural force without their being hindered by monopolies. It applies two types of controls on the economic activities.

    First, it subjects the process of earning to certain divine injunctions, which clearly define the limits of halal and haram. These injunctions tend to prevent monopolies and curb the unjust and immoral earnings and commercial activities detrimental to the collective interest of the society. In the context of modern economic needs where the savings of the common people are activated to boost development, the use of the Islamic instruments like musharakah and mudarabah, instead of interest, may make the common people directly share the fruits of development which may bring prosperity in a balanced manner reducing the gap between the rich and the poor.

    Second, the institution of Zakat, sadaqat, and certain other financial obligations provide that even the halal income is again distributed to the persons who could not earn enough due to insufficient market opportunities. Through the twin controls, the wealth is kept under constant circulation and the chances of its concentration are almost eliminated. But our main tragedy is that the principles of Islamic economy are still in theoretical form for which no living example is available. The Muslim countries have not tried to structure their economy on Islamic basis. Most of them are still following the capitalist system and that too in a half-baked manner.

    This tragic situation cannot last forever. If we are not prepared to mend our ways, some natural process of revolution is bound to find its way. If we want to avoid disastrous consequences of such revolution, we’ll have to restructure our economic system on the basis of clear guidance provided by the Qur’an and Sunnah. Our success in setting an example for implementing the Islamic principles will be our best gift to the human fraternity at the advent of the new century.

    usmani capitalism  third way


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  • 05/17/13--09:10: USMANI Taqi
  • Informations essentielles / Basic information

     

    Ecrits et discours / Writings and speeches

    – Taqi Usmani (Pakistan Herald – May 3, 2012): After the failure of communism, the world needs a third economic system based on the Islamic norms (Web ArchiveArchives PdeB)

    Articles / Point de Bascule

     

    Références / References

    – Qurtuba.ca (2008): An organization set up by MCQ identifies Jamal Badawi and Taqi Usmani as its sharia advisors


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    AVERTISSEMENT

    Point de Bascule n’endosse pas le contenu de ce document. Il est archivé sur ce site uniquement à des fins de référence.

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    Point de Bascule does not endorse the content of this document. It is archived on this website strictly for reference purposes.

    Munir el-Kassem presents Islam and some of its leaders

    Original address: http://www.iiid.ca/pages/Articles_det.php?id=40

    Reproduction of the original: http://www.pointdebasculecanada.ca/images/data/pdf/0%20ind%20el-kassem%20lecture%20islam%20rome%20repro.pdf

    Author: Munir el-Kassem

    Date: March 27-29, 2008 (Date at which this lecture was scheduled to be delivered at an interfaith conference between Muslim Scholars and Catholic Bishops in Rome)

    Munir el-Kassem’s main conclusion

    1. Ideal Islam does not recognize a barrier between religion and politics

    (Section 2) In its ideal form, Islamic leadership does not recognize the barrier between the religious and the political domains.

    2.  The imam is a religious and a political leader

    (Section 2) The Arabic word “Imam” is used exchangeably to denote, as per modern thinking, both the religious as well as the political leader.

    3.  Although Islam does not have a formal hierarchy, there is an Islamic leadership on the ground

    (Section 3) Although Islam does not lend itself to the establishment of a formal religious hierarchy, the reality imposed on the ground gave way to different levels of religious leadership. There are those levels that are institutionalized by the political establishment and are recognized as integral parts of governments, like ministries of endowments (Aweqaaf) and jurisprudence councils (Dur Al-Ifta’). For example, in Egypt the Head (Shaikh) of Al-Azhar enjoys a political status equivalent to that of the prime minister. These religious institutions acquired their legitimacy as a result of increasing social and political complexities within Muslim communities, and became like governing councils for all levels of religious guidance. A decision passed by such institutions is binding on all citizens within a defined political entity.

    (Section 3) The failure of official religious institutions, as defined by political entities, to unite on a global level, except for some nominal outbursts like the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) which is highly ineffective in providing meaningful religious leadership, led the scholarship of the Muslim Ummah to search for ways to fill such a void. Many international forums have been formed to provide Muslims with scholarly edicts in all aspects of life from jurisprudence to simple day to day guidance in spiritual pursuit. Representatives of these forms are organizations like the European Jurisprudence Council and the North American Council of Jurisprudence. These edicts from such scholarly forums fall short of meaningful religious leadership as they are not binding except in the moral sense, and only on selected groups within the global Muslim community.

    (Section 3) There are moreover, international religious groups with political ambitions like Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimoon (the Muslim Brothers), Hizbul Tahreer (Liberation Party), etc…which claim eligibility to provide religious leadership… (S)ome international religious institutions like the World Islamic Call Society and the Muslim World League, acquired a momentum in representing the aspirations, so to speak, of a wider segment of the world Muslim community.

    (Section 3) There are regional institutions like Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA), Council of American Islamic Relations (CAIR), Canadian Islamic Congress (CIC), Canadian Muslim Network (CMN), and many others that are trying very hard, especially during these times of crises involving Muslims all over the world, to provide the kind of leadership that will help us see the light at the end of the tunnel.

    (Section 3) In their own right, individuals as diverse in religious background as Shaikh Yousef Al-Qaradawi who is undeniably one of the worlds’ foremost authorities on Islam and ‘Amr Khalid who has no formal training in religious matters, are extremely influential in providing religious leadership for Muslims all over the world.

    Leaders of the Muslim community acknowledged by el-Kassem

    (Section 6) God continued to provide the community with reformers who would maintain people’s interest in their faith and would be like shining torches to the masses who believed in their religious leadership. Examples of such luminaries include: Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Al-Fadl Ben ‘Iyad, Ma’arouf Al-Karkhi, Ahmad Ben Hanbal, Abul-Hasan Al-Ash’ari, Abu Hamed Al-Ghazaali, Abdel-Qader Al-Jilani, Jalal Ad-Deen Al-Rumi, Jamal Ad-Deen Al-Afghaani, Muhammad Abdu, Rasheed Rida, Sayyed Qotb, Youssef Al-Qaradawi and a multitude of others in between.

    El-Kassem suggests that a “team” composed Muslim Brotherhood leaders is best qualified to provide leadership to the Muslim community.

    (Section 15) Who is most qualified to face the challenges: the highly qualified scholars of the calibre of Al-Qaradawi, the neo-preachers (Al-Du’aat Al-Judud) like ‘Amr Khaled, the academic thinkers like Mahmoud Ayoub, the political activists like Nihad ‘Awad, the modernist educators like Hamza Yousuf, or perhaps a team of all of the above?

    Original title: Religious Responsibilities of Leaders in Times of Crises

    This paper was supposed to be delivered at the Interfaith conference between Muslim Scholars and Catholic Bishops in Rome, Italy between March 27th and 29th, 2008. - Unfortunately, the conference was postponed

    Section 1 – Genesis of Religious Leadership

    Islam offers a very generous concept of “community”. The word “ummah” is peculiar to Islam because community members are united in both religious and political domains. According to Muhammad Hamidullah, in his book “The First Written Constitution in the World”, the word “deen” seems to have been used, in the text drafted at the time of Muhammad (pbuh), to designate, indistinctly, “religion” and “government”. For the Muslim, faith means submission to God and obedience to His divine, immutable, and eternal law. In other words, Islam to the faithful is “a life style” that transcends rituals to impact all aspects of a Muslim’s life including behaviour, educational pursuit, economics, interaction with the environment, and even intellectual development.

    From the Islamic perspective, the influence of religious law over all daily activities gives religion a more comprehensive meaning than the classical definition of the term. The application of religious values is expected to leave an imprint on the individual, the society and the entire world. Being a religion and culture, Islam asserts itself as an active and dynamic expression of the divine will which spontaneously flows into the collective will of the “ummah”. The solidarity among members of the Muslim community is strongly affirmed by the Qur’an. It asserts itself as a quasi-juridical obligation engaging the responsibility of each person in the community all the way from the leader to the weakest member of the community. In his agreed-upon hadith, Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said: “All of you are in a position to care for others (shepherds), and each one is responsible for those under his care.” In fact, the Qur’an commands Muslims to form a community whose members, individually and collectively, enjoin the good and forbid the evil: “Let there arise out of you a community of people inviting to what is good, enjoining that which is known (by the revelation for the good of human kind, ma’aroof), and forbidding that which is detested, munkar (evil)”Surat Al-‘Imran, Ayah 104. This clearly illustrates that the responsibilities of the leader are divinely enshrined and not temporally determined. This imperative duty to lead is more obligatory in Islam than in any other religious community. There are many prophetic traditions that praise the efforts of a leader who strives to spread justice and maintain equity among members of his community. It is inherent in the definition of Islamic leadership that the leader is responsible, directly and individually to God.

    Section 2 – Religious Leader vs. Political Leader

    In its ideal form, Islamic leadership does not recognize the barrier between the religious and the political domains. The Arabic word “Imam” is used exchangeably to denote, as per modern thinking, both the religious as well as the political leader. The same person that heads the government is the one who leads the prayer and provides religious counseling. That does not imply that there may be people within the community who are more religiously knowledgeable. Such people are essential in providing the Imam with consultation “Shura”. It is safe to say that Islam is a religion without priests creating a social and political community whose leader derives his power from the faith, even though, he may not be the highest religious authority. Therefore, one cannot look at the Muslim community as a theocracy as is often very improperly claimed in the West. No person or institution is entitled to modify or amend the revealed divine law which is the basis of governance. One reads in Surat Al-Ma’idah, Ayah 3: “Today have I completed your religion for you and perfected my favour upon you and chosen Islam as a deen (way of life) for you.”

    During the normative period of Islamic history, which spanned close to thirty years after the death of Muhammad (pbuh), the Rightly Guided Caliphs (Al-Khulufa’Al-Rashidoon), all four of whom were highly knowledgeable in all aspects of the Islamic faith, had no problem maintaining the dual role, so to speak, of religious and political leadership. There were all surrounded with men and women who were always available for consultation. Those were the companions of the Prophet who had witnessed the revelation first hand and many of whom were tutored directly by the Prophet. The Caliph’s main task was only to oversee the just application of the Qur’anic teachings and prophetic traditions (Sunan) and to maintain the Islamic community. As the guarantor of Islamic identity, he exercised only a unifying function since he had no legislative power. Theoretically, he was only the agent and the representative of the law which he himself had to obey. The Caliph’s religious leadership was recognized as long as he faithfully upheld the Qur’anic and Prophetic teachings as agreed upon by the learned companions of the Prophet.

    With the establishment of dynasties, as represented by the Umayyads and the Abbasids, the role of the Muslim leader started to get polarized towards the political domain. Even though he still claimed religious leadership through the influence he exercised and the authority he maintained over Muslim Scholars, that leadership became more of a theory than an application. Members of the Muslim community started to congregate around spiritual symbols that resisted the transformation from the simplicity of life as preached by Muhammad (pbuh) and practiced by his companions to the luxury and pomp that characterized the Umayyad “monarchy” rule which was founded by Mu’awiyah. Power tempted those monarchs to attach more importance to worldly affairs than spiritual preoccupations. The ideals of the prophetic community were transformed from full application during the time of the Rightly Guided Caliphs to mere teachings being propagated by luminary scholars who were ready to sacrifice their own lives to uphold the truth they believed in. Those scholars formed the nucleus of a newly emerging religious leadership that would become over the years quite distinct from political leadership.
    Rare indeed are those contemporary Muslim political leaders who fail to search for a type of legitimacy by evoking Islamic principles and creating religious institutions to provide guidance to the masses, albeit under close scrutiny. Religious leadership is rarely capable of exercising its responsibility to the full extent. There is always an element of a political watch dog that determines the format as well as the timing to execute such responsibility. Numerous states, born out of the wreckage of the Ottoman Empire or the casting off of European colonization, have formally adopted a form of religious leadership in the person of a Mufti or religious interpreter of Islamic teachings. The Mufti who enjoys the highest religious authority within a certain state may not deviate from the political philosophy maintained by the political leader of the state.

    Section 3 – Levels of Religious Leadership

    Although Islam does not lend itself to the establishment of a formal religious hierarchy, the reality imposed on the ground gave way to different levels of religious leadership. There are those levels that are institutionalized by the political establishment and are recognized as integral parts of governments, like ministries of endowments (Aweqaaf) and jurisprudence councils (Dur Al-Ifta’). For example, in Egypt the Head (Shaikh) of Al-Azhar enjoys a political status equivalent to that of the prime minister. These religious institutions acquired their legitimacy as a result of increasing social and political complexities within Muslim communities, and became like governing councils for all levels of religious guidance. A decision passed by such institutions is binding on all citizens within a defined political entity. Rarely do we find coordination among religious institutions of different political entities. The most common perennial outcome of such lack of coordination is the determination of beginning and end of religious occasions as they are determined by the lunar calendar. This has resulted in the absence of a unified global religious leadership whose directive can be binding on Muslims all over the world.

    The failure of official religious institutions, as defined by political entities, to unite on a global level, except for some nominal outbursts like the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) which is highly ineffective in providing meaningful religious leadership, led the scholarship of the Muslim Ummah to search for ways to fill such a void. Many international forums have been formed to provide Muslims with scholarly edicts in all aspects of life from jurisprudence to simple day to day guidance in spiritual pursuit. Representatives of these forms are organizations like the European Jurisprudence Council and the North American Council of Jurisprudence. These edicts from such scholarly forums fall short of meaningful religious leadership as they are not binding except in the moral sense, and only on selected groups within the global Muslim community. The historical realities that produced different religious schools of thought impose a well defined religious imprint on a particular international forum. That renders the decisions of any one forum potentially credible only to a segment of the international Muslim community that subscribes to that particular school of thought. There are moreover, international religious groups with political ambitions like Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimoon (the Muslim Brothers), Hizbul Tahreer (Liberation Party), etc…which claim eligibility to provide religious leadership.

    In the midst of diversity in interpreting religious dogma, a few individual scholars and some international religious institutions like the World Islamic Call Society and the Muslim World League, acquired a momentum in representing the aspirations, so to speak, of a wider segment of the world Muslim community. Not fully immune to criticism for the leadership they provide, they remain quite significant in the undeclared influence they exert on the masses. In their own right, individuals as diverse in religious background as Shaikh Yousef Al-Qaradawi who is undeniably one of the worlds’ foremost authorities on Islam and ‘Amr Khalid who has no formal training in religious matters, are extremely influential in providing religious leadership for Muslims all over the world.

    Apart from the international scene, Muslims look for guidance and leadership at different levels. There are regional institutions like Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA), Council of American Islamic Relations (CAIR), Canadian Islamic Congress (CIC), Canadian Muslim Network (CMN), and many others that are trying very hard, especially during these times of crises involving Muslims all over the world, to provide the kind of leadership that will help us see the light at the end of the tunnel. Quite often, there is duplication in efforts and, due to shortage of financial support, the leadership is rendered ineffective. The challenges are immense and the resources are meagre in comparison. Most of the programs of the aforementioned institutions are run by volunteers and their efficacy is compromised.

    Within local communities, Muslims seek guidance from their local Imam(s). These Imams may be graduates of a number of programs in Islamic studies or may have assumed the title by default due to the absence of a more qualified individual. The lack of a formal process of accreditation of Imams -since there is no such thing as ordination within the Islamic establishment- has created real challenges in running the affairs of Muslim communities, especially in the West. In the absence of a governing body, religious leadership becomes the outcome of individual preferences.

    In the Muslim world today, there is no smooth flow of religious authority among the different levels of leadership that were eluded to. Thus it becomes a matter of how able an individual or a community is in determining the best course of action under existing circumstances. This unpleasant reality is not reflective of Islam’s inability to lead the masses, but is rather a manifestation of interaction of several circumstances, some of which are imposed by complex world issues and some are of the making of the Muslims themselves.

    It is not realistic, nor is it expected from an Islamic viewpoint, to establish a unified religious leadership. However, Muslim scholars should take bold steps to define realistic parameters of a practical form of leadership that could eliminate the chaos that Muslims are currently experiencing in this arena. This is not by any stretch of imagination an easy straight forward task. But we need to start the process and brainstorm to come up with a flexible plan that lends itself to necessary modifications as we go forward.

    Section 4 – Inevitability of Crises

    Having painted a realistic portrait of the status of religious leadership among Muslims, let us gain some understanding of the significance or lack thereof of crises in developing the character of individuals and communities.

    Crises and sedition, trials and tribulations are part of human existence. They are permanent and inevitable. All kinds of antagonism have increasingly torn the world apart ever since God created man. As in Ibn-Khaldoun’s Mouqaddima, Islam’s sociological doctrine sees several reasons for this. It is an innate part of human nature—the tendency toward aggression (Surat Yousuf, Ayah 53: “the inner self is inclined to do that which is bad.”), love of power and fortune (Surat Al-‘Aadiyat, Ayah 8: “and he has excessive love for wealth.”), jealousy and rivalry of interests—as it is in the makeup of society: contestation and defense of central authority.

    Nevertheless, truth must triumph over error, good must vanquish evil, and justice must crush injustice. Antagonism between individuals, groups, and nations is unavoidable. In Surat Hud, Ayah 118, one reads: “If your Lord had so willed, He could have made humankind one people, but they will not cease to dispute.” God explicitly indicates in Surat Al-Aa’raf, Ayah 24, and Surat Al-Baqara, Ayah 36, that human beings are enemies to each other. It was indeed Cane’s (Qabeel) jealously of Able (Habeel) that led him to commit the first crime ever in human history: “And recite unto them the true story of Adam’s two sons, when each made an offering and it was accepted from one but not from the other. (As a result) he told his brother: I will kill you; (In response) he said: God only accepts from the righteous.” Surat Al-Ma’idah, Ayah 27.

    It is interesting to note that if the mistake made by Adam bore no consequences for the intrinsic nature of man, it did have a consequence for the mechanism of social relations. War, confrontations, crises, and all human tensions not only represent an inevitability but also a fundamental necessity for the harmonization of the world, by means of mutually neutralizing people: “If God did not check one set of people by another, the Earth would indeed be full of mischief. But God is full of bounty to all the worlds.” Surat Al-Baqarah, Ayah 251. However, despite this divine theory of mutual neutralization of humans, God clearly defines the Islamic ruling concerning the manner of waging war, handling crises and coping with extenuating circumstances: “O you who believe, stand up firmly for God, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to the wrong and depart from justice.” Surat Al-Ma’idah, Ayah 8. In the same Surah, Ayah 2, the Qur’an warns that hatred does not lead the believers to “an abuse of law.”

    Section 5 – Crises: An Islamic Historical Perspective

    Almost immediately after the death of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims became inflicted with crises, both internal (choosing a leader to succeed the Prophet) and external (wars of the renegades). Had it not been for divine guarantee to protect the faith through preservation of the Qur’an, one would have expected the complete annihilation of the young Muslim community: “We are the One who sent down the Remembrance, and We are determined to protect it.” Surat Al-Hijr, Ayah 9.

    How was the divine guarantee manifested on the ground? Were those crises divinely orchestrated to test the firmness of faith among the new Muslims? : “Did people think they would be allowed to claim having faith (in God) without being tested and tried? Verily We have similarly tested those before them so that God would demonstrate His knowledge of those who are telling the truth and those who are lying.” Surat Al-Ankabut, Ayat 2&3. Did the crises unfold as a result of divinely formed human nature, as discussed earlier? Is a crisis an indication that something has simply gone wrong and requires human intervention without the need to give it any divine connotation? And if this is the case, are the crises throughout Islamic history a reflection of Islam’s failure as a system or the Muslim’s failure to properly live by their faith? Do crises help demonstrate the power of faith in living up to the challenges imposed by such crises? Do crises help bring to the fore leaders who would have otherwise stayed unnoticed and ineffective? In other words, can one look at crises as educational opportunities and at leaders as teachers who would use the crises as troughs of knowledge? Do crises help keep our faith in check and help boost our enthusiasm to “hold fast to the rope of God”? Finally, do crises maintain a dynamic outlook of a religion which would otherwise turn into a static set of boring dogmas?

    A quick survey of Islamic history shows that the most influential religious figures produced their scholarly imprints during times of major crises. Since nothing in human history is a product of random occurrence, there must be a strong divine correlation between crises and the appearance of able religious leadership. There is ample historical evidence that the wealth of Islamic knowledge we are enjoying today is a direct result of great luminaries who knew how to translate seditions into a legacy of learning. Despite what seemed like insurmountable crises and challenges that could have eliminated the Ummah in its entirety -crises like the campaigns of the Crusaders and the onslaught of the Mongols- the wisdom, agility, dedication, deep faith in God, and great leadership skills of thousands of individuals helped establish a positive dimension to the pain and suffering that people endured during such tribulations. Those individuals taught us the true meaning of: “Fighting has been destined for you while you detest it, and you may detest something which is good for you and you may yearn for something which is bad for you, and God has the full scope of things while you do not.” Surat Al-Baqara, Ayah 216.

    Section 6 – Umar Ben Abdel-Aziz and the Crisis of Dwindling Spirituality

    Consider the example of Umar Ben Abdel-Aziz whose leadership, like that of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs, spanned both the religious and the political domains. His short life in office (two years and five months) was a testimony to his immaculate leadership skills to the extent that historians considered him a miracle shaped by the Divine Will. The immensity of his achievements and the effectiveness of his methods in correcting the path of a community that became almost fully derailed from the true teachings of Qur’an and Sunnah by the irresponsible leadership of his Umayyad predecessors, are worthy of our attention and scholarly investigation.
    Abu Ja’afar Muhammad Ben Jarir Al-Tabari in his famous book “The history of Nations and Royalties/Tareekh Al-Umam Wal-Mulook” said: “Al-Waleed’s interest was in buildings, factories and real-estate and that was what all people used to talk about during his reign. When Sulaiman succeeded him, people’s interest shifted to socializing, entertainment and cuisine. However, when Umar Ben Abdel-Aziz became the ruler, people started asking each other about how much they memorized of the Qur’an, when they would finish reciting the entire Qur’an and how many days they had fasted during the month.”

    Umar, a model of true Islamic leadership, demonstrated that religion was indispensable in leading the community out of misery, oppression, and chaos, which appeared as a direct result of abandonment of religious guidance, back into prosperity, justice and order which were the landmarks of the normative period of Islamic history, namely that of the first two of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs. Umar’s leadership was so effective to the extent that people used to face difficulty in finding eligible recipients of their Zakat funds. Yehya Ben Sa’id said: “I was commissioned by Umar Ben Abdel-Aziz to manage Zakat funds among the Muslims of Africa. I encountered real difficulty in finding eligible recipients, so I used the funds to help people pay their debts. When I did not exhaust the funds that way, I tired helping young men get married.” When Umar led by the Qur’an and Sunnah he excelled even within a short period of time, but when others led by their whims and desires they failed despite allowing themselves a lengthy period for recovery.

    Shortly after the death of Umar Ben Abdel-Aziz, the Muslim community underwent a relapse as the leaders once again abandoned their religious responsibility. However, God continued to provide the community with reformers who would maintain people’s interest in their faith and would be like shining torches to the masses who believed in their religious leadership. Examples of such luminaries include: Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Al-Fadl Ben ‘Iyad, Ma’arouf Al-Karkhi, Ahmad Ben Hanbal, Abul-Hasan Al-Ash’ari, Abu Hamed Al-Ghazaali, Abdel-Qader Al-Jilani, Jalal Ad-Deen Al-Rumi, Jamal Ad-Deen Al-Afghaani, Muhammad Abdu, Rasheed Rida, Sayyed Qotb, Youssef Al-Qaradawi and a multitude of others in between.

    Section 7 – Ahmad Ben Hanbal and the Crisis of the Creation of the Qur’an

    Another example of exceptional religious leadership is Ahmad Ben Hanbal whose perseverance brought a happy ending to what is referred to in Islamic history as simply “the crisis”. That was four months before the death of the Abbasid Caliph, Al-Ma’amoun who championed the line of thought of the Mu’tazilites. Those people declared that the Qur’an was to be viewed as a created product of God, not simply His revealed discourse. That philosophical engagement which was beyond what the average Muslim could comprehend, was rejected by the traditional scholars “Ahl-As-Sunnah.” Under the repression of the Abbasid rulers, many relinquished their cause except Ahmad Ben Hanbal who took his religious responsibility very seriously and refused to abandon his role as a teacher and a religious leader. He demonstrated a profound understanding of Ayah 79 of Surat Al-‘Imran: “...Be faithful servants of the Lord by virtue of your constant teaching of the Scripture and of your constant study thereof.”

    It was Ahmad Ben Hanbal’s perseverance that brought an end to the Mu’tazilites except from being mentioned in the books of philosophy and history. People congregated around Ahmad Ben Hanbal to the extent that one of his companions, Qutaibah, used to say: “If you meet someone who likes Ahmad Ben Hanbal, then be certain that he is an upholder of the authentic Sunnah of the Prophet.” Many historians equate Ahmad Ben Hanbal with Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq. Ali Ben Al-Madini, a great scholar of Hadith and a teacher of Al-Bukhari said: “God fortified this religion with Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq during the crisis of the renegades “Ar-Riddah” and with Ahmad Ben Hanbal during the crisis of the creation of the Qur’an “Khalq Al-Qur’an.”

    By the fifth century after Hijra, the conditions under the Abbasid rule became so “un-Islamic” that a major convulsion was considered a welcome development in order to shake the people and wake them up from their slumber. Leaders started to compete as to who is the most skillful in dirty political manouvers. People were over taxed and kept little for their families. That led to sub-standard social interactions. The kind of life that was enjoyed during the rule of leaders like Umar Ben Abdel Aziz was talked about as only belonging in fairy tales. People were in desparate need for a religious leader who could restore the strong connection with their faith, the same as Muhammad (pbuh) was able to accomplish for the people of Jahiliyyah (Pre-Islamic Ignorace Period): “He it is who has sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger of their own, to recite to them His revelations and to purify them of their sin, and to teach them the Scripture and wisdom, though before that they were indeed in error manifest.” Surat Al-Jumu’ah, Ayah 2.

    Section 8 – Salah Al-Deen Al-Ayoubi and the Crusades

    In 477 (A.H.) (1099 AD), Muslims received a major blow when the first of eight campaigns launched by the Crusades was successful in storming Jerusalem and establishing Christian sovereignty over the holy land. For the next 88 years Muslims faced a bleak future. The very existence of Muslims as a community was threatened by armies of Christian rulers, knights, and merchants who were driven by political and military ambitions, topped by a religious fervor that captured the European popular mind and gained its support. In 565 A.H. (1187 A.D.), Salah Al-Deen Al-Ayoubi (Saladin), having reestablished Abbasid rule over Fatimid Egypt, led his army in a fierce battle and recaptured Jerusalem.

    Despite not being a religious scholar, everything about Saladin was an embodiment of Islamic ideals and teachings. His military conduct and magnanimity was a source of pride for every Muslim. Being chivalrous and devout to his faith, Saladin endowed the Muslims with a great source of energy to recapture their identity that almost got crushed by the Crusaders. In other words, Saladin’s religious leadership was offered by example. It is interesting to note that such leadership was complimented by contemporaries of the caliber of Abdel-Qader Al-Jilani who lived during a phase of Islamic history that was wrought with turmoil and internal strife.

    Section 9 – Abdel-Qader Al-Jilani and the Crisis of Dirty Politics

    In his masterpiece of History “The Beginning and the End”/Al-Bidaya Wal-Nihaya”, Ibn Katheer painted a clear picture of what went on during the final years of the Abbasid dynasty. Baghdad was the center of a horrifying struggle for power between the Abbasid caliphs and the Suljuqi Sultans who insisted on imposing their influence on the caliphate. When they could not achieve that through peaceful means, one Suljuqi Sultan, mas’oud, waged a series of battles against the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mustarshid, and was finally able to overthrow the caliph and take him into custody. People’s belongings were ransacked and the supporters of the caliph took to the streets and started to vandalize property and civil unrest spread throughout the Iraqi region. Women were seen wailing in the streets and men stopped attending congregational prayers at the mosque of Baghdad.

    In the midst of the sedition that shook the foundation of the Muslim community and threatened the faith of people who could not tolerate the power struggle in the political arena, Abdel-Qader Al-Jilani rose as a shining star that provided guidance during the darkness of the night. He preached tirelessly and reminded the people of the Hereafter. He was unmatched in his ability to penetrate the hearts. His orations were dynamic and dealt with what people were experiencing. He induced the past in as much as it could benefit the present and the future. He was very skillful in articulating his ideas to produce a desirable effect. Historians reported that Abdel-Qader Al-Jilani’s impact on the people was significant and produced the kind of remedy that was expected of an effective religious leader. Ibn Katheer said: “He used to enjoin good and forbid evil in front of caliphs, ministers, sultans, and judges, in private and in public. He was even ready to admonish those who needed his admonishment without fearing anyone but God.” Abdel-Qader Al-Jilani’s leadership did not ignore the need to train people who could spread his teachings throughout the Muslim world. He succeeded in halting the derailment of the Muslim community for centuries to come. His students were not only instrumental in reclaiming for the masses the spirituality they had lost, but they succeeded in spreading Islam deep inside Africa and all the way into Indonesia, India and China. It was the word rather than the sword that spread Islam beyond the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula.

    Section 10 – The Mongols: The Ultimate Crisis

    In the seventh century after Hijra, the Muslim world faced a disaster whose magnitude was rarely ever experienced throughout human history. The savage Mongols literally devoured the entire Muslim world like locusts unleashed on a green field. People became convinced that the Mongols were unstoppable and that it was in their destiny to succumb to their invaders. The future of Islam as a faith and a way of life never seemed so bleak, especially when two major jolts, the Crusades and the Mongols, shook the Muslim world almost at the same time. Despite what medical practitioners refer to as hopeless prognosis, a full recovery was being divinely planned against all perceivable odds. It was nothing short of a miracle that could halt the Mongolian onslaught. And perhaps in retrospect, what ended up happening was indeed a miracle.

    The crisis that was by far the most serious to threaten the Muslim world was not only neutralized but reversed to the extent that it became a source of great benefit. How was that achieved continues to be a source of bewilderment to all historians. The subjugators laid down their arms before the faith of those they were trying to subjugate. The savages of yesterday became the preachers of tomorrow. The Mongols accepted Islam as groups and as individuals. Within a short period of time, the Mongols were transformed from attackers of Muslims to protectors of Islam. How could have that possibly happened?

    It was indeed a demonstration that the divine will was not bound by the cause-effect relationship: “His command is such that if He wills something, He would say to it be, and it becomes.” Surat Ya Seen, Ayah 82. Whereas humans are unable to reason outside this relationship, God wants us not to lose focus that faith is as essential in weighing observations as reason is. After all, that is what faith is all about: a firm belief that God is at the center of all things. Had the Muslims not been subjugated to the convulsions they were made to endure, they would have perhaps lost interest in religion all together. Some shaking of the sand mixture will always bring the gold to the surface.

    In case of the Mongols crisis, it is interesting to note that God kept his human tools of intervention almost unanimous. Whereas history recorded the names of the champions whose leadership was instrumental in reversing the tide of a particular crisis, those who neutralized the most serious of crises remained unknown to us. They were the ones whose wisdom, and deep commitment to their faith allowed them to effectively reach out to the Mongols and bring an end to the crisis. Their religious leadership was able to bring out of the Mongols jurists, scholars and effective preachers in conformity with the Qur’anic statement: “And whomsoever it is God’s will to guide, He expands his bosom to Islam (submission to the will of God), and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his bosom closed and narrow as if he were ascending in the sky.” Surat Al-An’aam, Ayah 125.

    Section 11 – Crises Inflicting Muslims in the Modern Age

    Currently, all religious communities are living through a profound crisis with so many dimensions that are determined by a world-wide earthquake brought on by exceptional challenges in all aspects of life: political, economic, ecological, military, moral, cultural, and so on. In addition to these challenges, the international Muslim community has some unique circumstances that were precipitated by the events of September 11, 2001 (commonly referred to as 9/11).
    It is beyond the scope of this article to present all the challenges currently faced by Muslims. My intention is to present them in connection with the responsibility of present day religious leadership. One obstacle that has been snowballing over time is the extraordinary diversity and multiplicity within the international Muslim community. There is far greater ethnic diversity than in any other religious community. This diversity has been legitimized by political entities that end up dictating the degree of efficacy of any level of religious leadership. With this arrangement, religious leaders are rendered into preachers without executive powers. Having said that, no one can dismiss the power of effective preaching in transforming people, thus the need to learn history lessons as I attempted earlier in this article.

    Section 12 – September 11, 2001

    By far, the most serious challenge facing Muslims in this phase of their history is the incisent attempt to demonize Islam and Muslims. It is wrong to assume that such attempts came as a result of 9/11. Indeed, a more realistic assessment would look at 9/11 as the day project “demonize Islam” was launched. Since that infamous day, books have been written and theories have been advanced about the way the horrible events of that day unfolded. I am not about to subscribe to any particular theory, but it is rather clear to any objective examiner of world events that the so called “war on terrorism” is a convenient front to much deeper objectives. Perhaps the slogan that was raised in the early nineties of the twentieth century, “New World Order”, is the best summary of what is being planned behind closed doors.

    Section 13 – Christian Zionists

    In the last decade, or slightly more than that, a branch of Christianity has arisen to political power in the U.S. with an utterly outrageous outlook on the Middle East. Large parts, though not all, of the evangelical churches have adopted Christian Zionism which favours unconditional support for Israeli policies and hostility towards Palestinians. Such dangerous outlook is based on a peculiar reading of the “Old Testament” in which God calls for Israelite dominion over large parts of “the Promised Land.” Therefore, according to Christian Zionists, Palestinian nationhood would block the fulfillment of God’s intentions. In the radical version of this theology, some Christians draw on the Book of Revelations to insist that the End of Days is close upon us. Its coming will entail the bloodiest of wars-Armageddon (Har Megiddo in Hebrew) – in which Israel must triumph over its satanic foes. Thus the view that has been propagated all over the world that Islam is satanic in origin and that Muslims are satanically violent by their very nature.

    Section 14 – The World-Wide Earthquake

    Just as the 9/11 attacks were unprecedented for what was propagated as a religious justification, the response has been also unprecedented on the part of the U.S. government and its allies. Thousands of lives have been lost in the name of teaching democracy to the ignorant masses and ridding the world of weapons of mass destruction. The colonizing powers of the last century that came at the heals of the Crusaders campaigns are now reinvading the Muslim world, albeit with a different strategy. The horrors of war and the deprivation inherited from decades of colonial subjugation are producing generations of angry young people who are probably seeing on movie screens the plentifulness that the West is enjoying while they are swimming in oceans of misery. Violence and counter violence are becoming the inevitable outcome of this craze.

    The worldwide earthquake has stimulated restorationist fervor among some Muslims, a phenomenon which is encountered across religious communities whenever they are immersed in a crisis of massive proportions. As in the other Abrahamic communities, some of these fervent restorationists have turned to violence as a tool to rid the community or even the world of the “impurities” that threaten its very existence. Yet the majority of religious leadership has been quick to denounce violence as a means to “restore” Muslim supremacy in the Middle East or achieve it anywhere in the world.

    Section 15 – Religious Leaders as the Heirs to the Prophets

    Religious leaders have a great responsibility in overcoming their carnal temptations to show compassion to their own group while teaching the others a lesson in the disadvantages of “going astray.” A religious leader is a spokesperson of the prophet he represents. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is reported to have said: “Scholars (religious leaders) are the heirs to the prophets.” God commanded Muhammad (pbuh) by saying: “Call to the path of your Lord with wisdom and the use of a good (practical) advice.” Surat Al-Nahl, Ayah 125. A religious leader must have what the Chinese call “jian ai”, “concern for everybody.” All Abrahamic traditions agree on the theme of “love for the others.” Jewish law stipulates: “Honour the stranger,” Jesus said: “Love thy enemies,” and the Qur’an states: “O you who have faith: Be staunch in justice, witnesses for God, even though it is against yourselves or your parents or your kindred.” Surat Al-Nisa’, Ayah 135. A religious leader must have what it takes to see beyond the narrow spectrum of events and lead outside the boundaries of ordinary human desires and carnal wishes.

    Competent religious leaders who are up to the challenge presented by a complex array of modern realities must be able to bypass the confines of sectarian restrictions, be brave in presenting viable alternatives: “O Messenger: Make known that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, for if you do it not, you will not have conveyed His message. God will protect you from (the wrongdoers among) people.” Surat Al-Ma’idah, Ayah 67, and show respect to people of other faith traditions: “And argue not with the People of the Scripture unless it is in the best of ways, except with such of them as do wrong.” Surat Al’Ankabut, Ayah 46. Who is most qualified to face the challenges: the highly qualified scholars of the calibre of Al-Qaradawi, the neo-preachers (Al-Du’aat Al-Judud) like ‘Amr Khaled, the academic thinkers like Mahmoud Ayoub, the political activists like Nihad ‘Awad, the modernist educators like Hamza Yousuf, or perhaps a team of all of the above?

    Section 16 – Conclusion

    As a result of religious leadership, whether genuine or self declared, becoming more conspicuous, many are viewing this leadership as not necessarily more compassionate, more tolerant, more peaceful or more spiritual than the rest of the people. This is a very dangerous view because it robs religion of its relevance and even makes it the culprit instead of being the saviour. Unfortunately, nowadays, compassion does not seem to be a popular virtue among religious leaders. Many prefer to be right rather than compassionate. They do not want to give up their egos. They want religion, as Karen Armstrong, the famous author says, “to give them a little mild uplift once a week so that they can return to their ordinary selfish lives, unscathed by the demands of their tradition.” She adds: “Religion is hard work; not many people do it well. The failure of religious people to be compassionate does not tell us something about religion, but about human nature. Religion is a method: you have to put it into practice to discover its truth.” A similar sentiment is echoed in the Qur’an: “It was by the mercy of God that you were lenient with them (O Muhammad), for if you had been severe and hand-hearted they would have forsaken you.” Surat-Al-‘Imran, Ayah 159.

    Glossary

    A.H. After Hijrah (After Migration from Makkah to Medina), the historical event that marks the beginning of the Islamic lunar calendar.

    Abbasids The dynasty that ruled after the Umayyads

    Ahl-As-Sunnah Followers of the authentic teachings of the Prophet

    Al- Du’aat Al-Judud Neo-preachers of Islam

    Al- Azhar One of the oldest Islamic Universities, located in Egypt

    Al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimoon Muslim Brothers, an Islamic organization with a political platform

    Al-Khulaf’a Al-Rashidoon Rightly Guided Caliphs

    Ar- Riddah Crisis of the renegades

    Aweqaaf Endowments

    Ayat/Ayah Qur’anic chapter

    Caliph Community leader who succeeded the Prophet

    Deen Generally speaking: Religion/From the Islamic Perspective: Islamic way of life

    Dur Al-Ifta’ Jurisprudence Councils

    Fatimid A line of Imams that ruled Egypt from the 10th to the 12th century

    Habeel Able (son of Adam)

    Hadith Sayings of Prophet Muhammad

    Hizbul Tahreer Liberation Party, an Islamic organization with a political platform

    Imam Leader of the prayer, religious leader

    Jahiliyyah Pre-Islamic Ignorance Period

    Khalq Al- Qur’an Creation of the Qur’an

    Ma’aroof Recognized as good

    Mufti Highest religious authority within a certain state

    Munkar An act which is disliked intensely

    Mu’tazilites A school of thought that used reason as the basis of all knowledge

    Ottoman Empire One of the three empires that emerged out of the weakened Abbasid dynasty and was centered in Istanbul

    (pbuh) Peace be upon him

    Qabeel Cane (son of Adam)

    Shaikh Head of a tribe, ruler, religious teacher

    Shura Consultation

    Suljuqi A military dynasty that ruled portions of the Abbasid state while the caliph stayed on the throne as a symbol of legitimate government.

    Sultans Rulers in medieval Islamic states

    Sunan Prophetic traditions (actions and sayings)

    Sunnah Teachings of the Prophet, next in importance to the Qur’an

    Surat/Surah Qur’anic chapter

    Umayyads The dynasty that ruled after the four Rightly Guided Caliphs

    Ummah World community of Muslims

    List of References
    (In the same order as they were used in the text)

    1) The Glorious Qur’an (Arabic text); translation was produced by the author of the article.
    2) “Mawsu’at Al-Ahadith Al-Nabawiyyah” (Encyclopedia of Prophetic Sayings) (Arabic text).
    3) “The First Written Constitution in the World”, (English text) by Muhammad Hamidullah.
    4) “Al-Muqaddima” (The Introduction), (Arabic text) by Ibn Khaldoun.
    5) “A’alam Al-Fikr Fit-Tarikh Al-Islami” (Luminary Thinkers in Islamic History),(Arabic text) by Abu Al-A’ala Al-Mawdudi.
    6) “Tareekh Al-Umam Wal-Muluk” (History of Nations and Royalties),(Arabic text) by Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari.
    7) “Al-Bidaya Wal-Nihaya” (The Beginning and the End), (Arabic text) by Ibn Katheer.
    8) “Divisions in Our World are not the Result of Religion”,(English text) by Karen Armstrong and Andrea Bistrich.
    9) “Islam: the Straight Path”, (English text) by John Esposito.
    10) “Humanism in Islam”,(English text) by Marcel Boisard.


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  • 05/17/13--09:10: CHARKAOUI Adil
  • Informations essentielles / Basic information

     

    Articles / Point de Bascule

     

    Références / References

    – CCIEM (17 mars 2012) : La mosquée Assuna et le Centre communautaire islamique de l’Est de Montréal invitent Adil Charkaoui à rencontrer les jeunes musulmans



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    Informations essentielles / Basic information


    Articles / Point de Bascule


    Références / References

    – CCIEM (17 mars 2012) : La mosquée Assuna et le Centre communautaire islamique de l’Est de Montréal invitent Adil Charkaoui à rencontrer les jeunes musulmans


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